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利用基于自然的解决方案促进生物多样性保护

摘要: 生物多样性丧失是当今人类面临的重要危机之一,在以爱知目标为代表的生物多样性保 护目标均未实现的背景下,如何推进变革性转型以遏制和扭转生物多样性丧失趋势成为当务之 急。基于自然的解决方案(NbS)因其坚持整体性、系统性、多样性、稳定性、可持续性、权 衡性和包容性等原则,成为应对全球危机的重要工具。本文通过分析机理和功能层面生物多样 性和NbS 的关系,阐明了NbS 利用恢复生态系统的复杂性和营养级来指引生物多样性保护的 路径,提出了利用NbS 促进生物多样性保护的双重内涵,一是以提升生态系统多样性、稳定性、 持续性为目标,二是利用自然生态过程。在建立NbS 和生物多样性关联认知的基础上,本文进 一步梳理了NbS 的概念内涵与生物多样性保护目标的一致性,以及NbS 在生态空间、农业空 间、城镇空间的对生物多样性保护的相关方法,归纳了NbS 促进生物多样性的国内外实践案例, 讨论了NbS 协同促进生物多样性保护、应对气候变化和可持续发展的多重效益,展望了NbS 纳入生物多样性保护战略规划的愿景,以期为促进昆明-蒙特利尔全球生物多样性框架等框架 履约、推进NbS 在生物多样性保护主流化提供参考。

Abstract: Biodiversity loss is one of the major crises facing humanity today, and with none of the biodiversity targets represented by the Aichi Biodiversity Targets being met, there is an urgent need to promote transformative change to halt and reverse the trend of biodiversity loss. Nature-based solutions (NbS) have emerged as an important tool to address the global crisis due to its inherent principles involving holistic and systemic approach, diversity, stability, sustainability, trade-offs, and compatibility. The relationship between biodiversity and NbS is analyzed from a mechanistic and functional perspective, and the pathway of NbS as a proxy for biodiversity conservation is revealed by restoring of ecosystem complexity and trophic levels to put nature on the path. We here summarize the dual intensions of promoting NbS for biodiversity conservation, as 1) the goal aimed at enhancing diversity, stability, and sustainability of ecosystem, and 2) the tool involves use natural processes. Based on the above understanding of the link between NbS and biodiversity, this paper further compares the conceptual connotation of NbS with the consistency of biodiversity conservation, as well as the NbS methods for biodiversity conservation including natural, agricultural and urban area. Practical cases of NbS for biodiversity conservation or synergy of NbS for biodiversity are summarized in align with differentiated typical ecosystems. The multiple benefits of NbS for biodiversity conservation, climate change and sustainable development are discussed. The vision of integrating NbS into strategic planning for biodiversity conservation is presented to provide a reference for promoting the implementation of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework and the mainstreaming of NbS in biodiversity conservation.

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[V1] 2023-05-21 20:03:59 ChinaXiv:202305.00167V1 下载全文
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