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森林木质藤本数量过度增加的机制与生态效应

摘要:木质藤本是森林物种多样性维持的组成部分,然而近年来热带、亚热带森林,尤其是 次生林内木质藤本数量的过度增加给森林的恢复和健康发展造成威胁,这一现象却未得到太 多关注。至今国内尚未有研究对森林木质藤本过多的现象、增加机制与生态效应进行综合认 识。该文梳理国内外相关文献,从木质藤本数量增加的机制与生态效应进行分析和总结,以 期为森林管理和恢复等方面的宏观决策提供科学依据。综合相关研究认为:(1)木质藤本数 量的增加与气象干旱、大气 CO2 浓度上升、自然干扰和森林破碎化有关。在环境变化的情 况下,木质藤本在形态、行为、生理等方面比树木更具优势,表现为更快的生长速率、更强 的繁殖力、可塑性和高效的资源获取力。(2)木质藤本主要是通过遮荫胁迫、资源竞争和机 械压力与损伤等方式对树木造成影响。(3)木质藤本过度增加在个体水平上会阻碍树木生长、 生殖并引起树木死亡,在群落水平上会改变物种组成、降低多样性,在生态系统水平上会降 低森林碳储量、改变碳、矿质养分和水分循环过程等。综合以上研究建议结合野外长期监测 与控制实验开展木质藤本种群动态变化与环境变化关系、森林干扰对木质藤本生长的影响、 木质藤本对环境变化的响应及适应机理、木质藤本数量过度增加的生态效应评价研究。同时, 应积极探索合理的森林木质藤本管控方法。

英文摘要:Lianas are one of the components in maintaining forest diversity. However, the over-increase of lianas in tropical and subtropical forests, especially in secondary forests is threatening the restoration and healthy development of forests. Few domestic researches have paid attention to the phenomenon and make a comprehensive evaluation on the mechanism of the over-increase of lianas and negative effects on forests. In this paper, we reviewed and summarized the related researches on mechanisms and ecological consequences of the over-increase of lianas both at home and abroad with the purpose of offering reference for forest management and forest ecological restoration. Based on the relevant studies we hold the opinions: (1) The increase of lianas can be corelated with drought severity, elevated atmospheric CO2, increased natural disturbance (gaps) and forest fragments. Lianas possess the advantages of rapid growth, strong reproductive capacity and phenotypic plasticity, and high resource use efficiency under the altered environment. Thus, the favorable environment and inherent advantages can contribute to the increase of lianas. (2) Lianas compete with trees by means of shading stress, nutrient and water competition and mechanical loading, abrasion, and strangulation, which all may increase the mortality of trees. (3) Empirical evidence shows that the over-increase of lianas can negatively affect the tree growth recruitment, reproduction, and survival; at community level, lianas can alter tree community composition and decrease community diversity; at ecosystem level, lianas have the potential to ramify forest ecosystem function by decreasing carbon storage and altering carbon, nutrient, and water cycling. We recommend that future studies should be aimed at the correlations between population dynamic of liana species and environmental changes, the effect of forest disturbance on the growth of lianas, responses of lianas to the environmental changes and the adaption mechanisms, comprehensive evaluation on the ecological consequences of the increase of lianas by means of long-term dynamic monitoring plots and controlling experiments. It is also essential to find appropriate management and control strategies of the over-increase of lianas. We suggest that paying more attentions to the increase of lianas and the potential negative effects in secondary forest.

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[V1] 2022-06-29 20:52:10 chinaXiv:202206.00192V1 下载全文
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