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1. chinaXiv:201610.00038 [pdf]

母亲是否主要喂养人在儿童体型认知和喂养行为上的比较研究

刘静静; 江兰; 陈祉妍; 郭菲; 韩世文; 齐佳玉; 李冬梅
Subjects: Biology >> Developmental Biology

摘 要:目的 初步探索母亲是主要喂养人和母亲不是主要喂养人在儿童体型认知和喂养行为上的比较研究,为今后在家庭喂养环境中干预儿童肥胖提供借鉴。方法 在北京、西安、江苏和深圳等四个城市进行方便抽样选取8所幼儿园对儿童母亲进行随机抽样,共收回有效问卷456份。整个问卷采用母亲自我报告的调查方法。调查内容包括人口社会学特征、体型图表认知和儿童喂养问卷。结果 体重正常儿童的母亲能够正确认知子女的体重水平是前者(83.83%)大于后者(76.67%),超重儿童的母亲低估了子女的体重水平是前者(91.89%)大于后者(65.22%),肥胖儿童的母亲低估了子女的体重水平是前者(68.75%)大于后者(62.86%)。前者在填鸭式喂养行为上表现出了显著的差异性(F=6.096,P<0.001),多重比较发现,低体重和正常体重儿童(t=3.247,P=0.001)、正常体重和肥胖儿童(t=-3.292,P<0.001)之间存在显著性差异。在填鸭式喂养行为上前者在正确认知和低估(t=-2.779,P<0.01)、正确认知和高估(t=-2.780,P<0.01)中分别存在显著性差异。后者的认知偏差在母亲每月税后收入高水平和低水平之间存在显著性差异(t=2.772,P<0.01)。结论 二者均存在认知偏差现象,而母亲不是主要喂养人时更容易在母亲每月税后收入低水平时出现认知偏差现象。但在超重和肥胖儿童母亲中二者均更存在体型认知低估现象。母亲是主要喂养人时更倾向于在低体重和肥胖儿童中采取填鸭式喂养行为,而其体型认知可能会影响其喂养行为。

submitted time 2016-10-27 Hits2395Downloads1030 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201610.00002 [pdf]

Two novel genes discovered in human mitochondrial DNA using PacBio full-length transcriptome data

gao,shan
Subjects: Biology >> Molecular Biology

In this study, we introduced a general framework to use PacBio full-length transcriptome sequencing for the investigation of the fundamental problems in mitochondrial biology, e.g. genome arrangement, heteroplasmy, RNA processing and the regulation of transcription or replication. As a result, we produced the first full-length human mitochondrial transcriptome from the MCF7 cell line based on the PacBio platform and characterized the human mitochondrial transcriptome with more comprehensive and accurate information. The most important finding is two novel genes hsa-MDL1 and hsa-MDL1AS, which are encoded by the mitochondrial D-loop regions. We propose hsa-MDL1 and hsa-MDL1AS, as the precursors of transcription initiation RNAs (tiRNAs), belong to a novel class of long non-coding RNAs (lnRNAs), which is named as long tiRNAs (ltiRNAs). Based on the mitochondrial RNA processing model, the primary tiRNAs, precursors and mature tiRNAs could be discovered to completely reveal tiRNAs from their origins to functions. The ltiRNA/tiRNA system and their regulation mechanisms could exist ubiquitously in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These findings will enrich the basic concepts in the field of mitochondrial biology, lnRNA functions and regulation of gene expression.

submitted time 2016-10-06 Hits14440Downloads1284 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201609.00032 [pdf]

2~5.5岁儿童母亲的体型认知与其喂养行为的相关性探索

刘静静; 齐佳玉; 李冬梅
Subjects: Biology >> Developmental Biology

目的 初步探索母亲对2~5.5岁儿童的体型认知对其喂养行为的影响,为今后在家庭喂养环境中干预儿童肥胖提供借鉴。方法 在北京、西安、江苏和深圳等四个城市共随机选取8所幼儿园对儿童母亲进行随机抽样,共收回有效问卷456份。整个问卷采用母亲自我报告的调查方法。调查内容包括人口社会学特征、体型图表认知和儿童喂养问卷。结果 80.84%体重正常儿童的母亲能够正确认知子女的体重水平,81.67%超重和70.15%肥胖儿童的母亲低估了子女的体重水平。认知偏差与强迫吃呈显著正相关(r=.109,P<.05),多重比较发现,正确认知和低估存在显著性差异(P<.001);认知偏差与担心呈显著正相关(r=.148,P<.01)。结论 超重和肥胖儿童的母亲更存在体型认知低估现象。母亲认知其子女体重水平会影响到母亲的喂养行为。

submitted time 2016-09-02 Hits2323Downloads959 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:201608.00156 [pdf]

2~5.5岁儿童母亲的体型认知与其喂养行为的相关性探索

刘静静; 齐佳玉; 李冬梅
Subjects: Biology >> Developmental Biology

目的 初步探索母亲对2~5.5岁儿童的体型认知对其喂养行为的影响,为今后在家庭喂养环境中干预儿童肥胖提供借鉴。方法 在北京、西安、江苏和深圳等四个城市共随机选取8所幼儿园对儿童母亲进行随机抽样,共收回有效问卷456份。整个问卷采用母亲自我报告的调查方法。调查内容包括人口社会学特征、体型图表认知和儿童喂养问卷。结果 80.84%体重正常儿童的母亲能够正确认知子女的体重水平,81.67%超重和70.15%肥胖儿童的母亲低估了子女的体重水平。认知偏差与强迫吃呈显著正相关(r=0.109,P<0.05),多重比较发现,正确认知和低估存在显著性差异(P<0.001);认知偏差与担心呈显著正相关(r=0.148,P<0.01)。结论 超重和肥胖儿童的母亲更存在体型认知低估现象。母亲认知其子女体重水平会影响到母亲的喂养行为。

submitted time 2016-09-01 Hits3053Downloads1047 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:201606.00145 [pdf]

生物磁受体蛋白MagR/IscA研究进展

汪红霞; 向远彩; 张义国
Subjects: Biology >> Molecular Biology

铁硫簇蛋白是一类重要的线粒体功能蛋白,在细胞能量代谢、电子传递、底物结合与激活、铁/硫存储、酶促反应、基因表达调控等诸多过程中均发挥了关键作用. 一旦铁硫簇组装及转运过程发生障碍,必将严重影响细胞内铁的稳态及铁硫蛋白的功能. 其中,分子量约 11-kDa 的 IscA,是铁硫蛋白亚家族 hesB 之一的高保守性成员,能结合铁离子及[2Fe-2S]簇,从而参与铁硫簇蛋白的合成,因此在铁硫簇组装蛋白系统中具有重要的作用. 更值得关注的是,2015 年谢灿和张生家各自研究组分别发现了 IscA1 具有独特的磁感应(magnetic sensor,MagS)与磁受体(magnetic receptor,MagR)功能. 尤为重要的是,通过外磁场刺激相关磁基因表达,能够调控神经活动及行为定位. 鉴于磁受体的独特功能并结合相关技术,遂将其统称为磁遗传学(磁基因学). 本文简要介绍 IscA 蛋白的始初发现与鉴定历程、进化保守性及其独特的生理生物学功能,并凝练出磁遗传假说机制调控模型.

submitted time 2016-06-16 Hits50759Downloads4185 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:201606.00131 [pdf]

近10年我国糖尿病足治疗领域知识图谱分析

尚成英
Subjects: Library Science,Information Science >> Library Science

摘 要:目的: 统计分析近10年我国糖尿病足治疗领域的研究成果及热点,预测我国糖尿病足治疗领域未来发展方向及趋势。方法: 利用SPSS22.0制作绘制年度发文量趋势图、关键聚类分析图及期刊来源频数图,SATI3.1统计文献来源及绘制关键词矩阵,CiteSpace4.0绘制作者、机构和关键词网络共现图谱。结果:国糖尿病足治疗领域年度发文量逐渐增加,波动较小;作者之间合作密切;机构与机构之间的合作较少;关键词较好地反映出了我国糖尿足病近10年的研究进展及成果;同时也存在糖尿病足基础方面的研究较少;糖尿病足治疗领域的期刊来源广泛,但期刊影响因子较低。结论:在今后研究中,我国糖尿病足治疗领域中的相关工作者及机构,应加强合作,重视糖尿病足基础的研究及高质量的成果的发表,努力使我国糖尿病足的治疗达到一个更高的水平。

submitted time 2016-06-14 Hits11854Downloads964 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:201606.00119 [pdf]

Preliminary analysis of spatial-temporal homogeneity and heterogeneity of TCR β chain CDR3 repertoires in BALB/c mice

yaoxinsheng
Subjects: Biology >> Cell Biology

ABSTRACT T-cell response and tolerance in non-lymph tissues (liver and small intestine) differ from lymph tissue response and tolerance as occurs in the spleen and thymus. However, the distribution and composition of the TCR repertoire in non-lymph tissues, and how they differ and associate with counterparts in lymph tissue, peripheral blood and non-lymph tissue is unclear. Thus, we studied these tissues in BALB/c mice at one-, three- and five-months-of-age. Genomic DNA were extracted from organs and multiple PCR amplification was performed for the TCT β chain CDR3 region, followed by high-throughput sequencing(HTS) of the CDR3 region. Spatial-temporal homogeneity and heterogeneity of TCR β chain CDR3 repertoires were analyzed and compared. Data show that total CDR3 repertoire diversity was the same across mouse ages and diversity of thymal CDR3 in the youngest mouse was significantly greater than the older mice. CDR3 intestinal diversity in the oldest mouse was greater than in the other two mice. CDR3 diversity in the thymus spleen and blood for all mice exceeded that of the livers and small intestine and CDR3 in the spleen, blood, and liver decreased with ageing. At all ages, lowly -expanded clone (LEC) was greatest in the thymus, followed by the spleen, blood, liver, and small intestines and highly-expanded clones (HEC) had the opposite trend. Liver medium-expanded clones (MEC) was the most abundant compared to other tissues at all animal ages. Overlapping CDR3 in total CDR3 sequences were greatest in the small intestine, and least in the thymus at all ages and overlapped CDR3 had the opposite pattern. The distribution of CDR3 repertoire length was normal, with a median of 14 amino acids in tissues of all mice but the youngest mouse intestinal distribution had a median of 12 amino acids. CDR3 repertoire amino acid usage was consistent among all mouse tissues and K, M, H, I were abnormally low. V, D, and J usage in the CDR3 repertoire were not different at any age nor were TRBV, TRBD, and TRBJ usage. Usage of the TRBV1, TRBV5, TRB13, TRBV19, and TRBV31 family was high frequency, and the TRBJ01-7(ORF) and TRBJ02-6 (P) family was used at low frequency. TRBJ02-7 usage was significantly higher compared to other TRBJ families. TRBD01 usage was significantly higher than TRBD02 usage. For n-insertions and v, j, d5, and d3 deletions, there were some differences among examined tissues. Thus, the composition and characteristics of the CDR3 repertoire are unique across different tissues at different ages in BALB/c mice. CDR3 repertoire composition was similar within the thymus, blood, spleen, and liver at all ages; and the intestinal composition was different from the thymus, spleen, blood, and liver. These data offer a novel method to explore source, differentiation, proliferation and response of distinct T cells in different tissues at different mouse ages.

submitted time 2016-06-14 Hits1634Downloads871 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:201605.00423 [pdf]

内蒙古半干旱草原土壤水分对降水格局变化的响应

陈敏玲; 张兵伟; 任婷婷; 王姗姗; 陈世苹
Subjects: Biology >> Botany >> Plant ecology, plant geography

在全球气候变化背景下, 未来我国北方半干旱地区的降水格局将呈现出季节与年际间降水波动增强和极端降水事件增加的趋势。水分是半干旱草原的主要限制因子, 降水格局变化导致的土壤水分状况的改变必然对生态系统的结构和功能产生显著的影响。该研究选取内蒙古多伦、锡林浩特两个典型半干旱草原群落, 通过分析2006–2013年的降水和多层次(0–10 cm、10 cm、20 cm、30 cm和50 cm)土壤含水量连续观测数据, 研究降水格局变化对土壤水分状况及其垂直分布的影响, 特别是土壤水分对降水事件的脉冲响应过程。结果表明: 两个站点的土壤含水量均呈现显著的季节及年际间波动, 其中, 深层水分波动相对较小, 表层水分波动相对剧烈。锡林浩特50 cm深处土壤含水量波动较大, 主要由于春季融雪对深层水分的补充。年际间多伦和锡林浩特生长季表层土壤含水量与降水量存在显著的正相关关系, 下层土壤含水量与降水量相关性不显著。研究发现最小2 mm的降水事件能够引起两个站点表层土壤含水量的升高, 即该地区有效降水为日降水量>2 mm。表层土壤含水量对独立降水事件的脉冲响应可通过一个指数方程很好地拟合出来。降水事件的大小决定了雨后表层土壤含水量的最大增量和持续时间, 同时这个脉冲响应过程还受到雨前土壤含水量的影响, 但该过程中并未发现植被因子(叶面积指数)的显著影响。降水后水分下渗深度及该深度的土壤含水量增量主要由降水事件大小主导, 同时受到雨前土壤含水量的影响。在多伦和锡林浩特, 平均每增加1 mm降水, 下渗深度分别增加1.06和0.79 cm。由此我们认为, 在内蒙古半干旱草原, 降水事件大小和雨前土壤干湿状况是影响土壤水分对降水响应的主要因素, 而植被因子的影响较小。

submitted time 2016-06-13 Hits24140Downloads1812 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:201605.01809 [pdf]

BMP2-SMAD Signaling Represses the Proliferation of Embryonic Neural Stem Cells through YAP

Yao, Minghui; Wang, Yadong; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Hong; Yuan, Zengqiang; Yao, Minghui; Xu, Zhiheng; Jiao, Jianwei; Wang, Yadong
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics >> Neurosciences

Previous studies have shown that the Hippo pathway effector yes-associated protein (YAP) plays an important role in maintaining stem cell proliferation. However, the precise molecular mechanism of YAP in regulating murine embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) remains largely unknown. Here, we show that bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) treatment inhibited the proliferation of mouse embryonic NSCs, that YAP was critical for mouse NSC proliferation, and that BMP2 treatment-induced inhibition of mouse NSC proliferation was abrogated by YAP knockdown, indicating that the YAP protein mediates the inhibitory effect of BMP2 signaling. Additionally, we found that BMP2 treatment reduced YAP nuclear translocation, YAP-TEAD interaction, and YAP-mediated transactivation. BMP2 treatment inhibited YAP/TEAD-mediated Cyclin D1 (ccnd1) expression, and knockdown of ccnd1 abrogated the BMP2-mediated inhibition of mouse NSC proliferation. Mechanistically, we found that Smad1/4, effectors of BMP2 signaling, competed with YAP for the interaction with TAED1 and inhibited YAP's cotranscriptional activity. Our data reveal mechanistic cross talk between BMP2 signaling and the Hippo-YAP pathway in murine NSC proliferation, which may be exploited as a therapeutic target in neurodegenerative diseases and aging.

submitted time 2016-06-06 Hits2738Downloads1044 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:201605.01837 [pdf]

Diversification and use of bioenergy to maintain future grasslands

Iain S. Donnison; Mariecia D. Fraser
Subjects: Biology >> Botany >> Botany research, experiment, plant evolution & development

Grassland agriculture is experiencing a number of threats including declining profitability and loss of area to other land uses including expansion of the built environment as well as from cropland and forestry. The use of grassland as a natural resource either in terms of existing vegetation and land cover or planting of new species for bioenergy and other nonfood applications presents an opportunity, and potential solution, to maintain the broader ecosystem services that perennial grasslands provide as well as to improve the options for grassland farmers and their communities. This paper brings together different grass or grassland-based studies and considers them as part of a continuum of strategies that, when also combined with improvements in grassland production systems,will improve the overall efficiency of grasslands as an important natural resource and enable a greater area to be managed, replanted or conserved. These diversification options relate to those most likely to be available to farmers and land owners in the marginally economic or uneconomic grasslands of middle to northern Europe and specifically in the UK. Grasslands represent the predominant global land use and so these strategies are likely to be relevant to other areas although the grass species used may vary. The options covered include the use of biomass derived from the management of grasses in the urban and semi urban environment, semi-natural grassland systems as part of ecosystem management, pasture in addition to livestock production, and the planting and cropping of dedicated energy grasses. The adoption of such approaches would not only increase income from economically marginal grasslands, but would also mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from livestock production and help fund conservation of these valuable grassland ecosystems and landscapes, which is increasingly becoming a challenge.

submitted time 2016-05-31 Hits10465Downloads881 Comment 0

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