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1. chinaXiv:201903.00232 [pdf]

Conversion of cropland into agroforestry land versus naturally-restored grassland alters soil macro-faunal diversity and trophic structure in the semi-arid agro-pasture zone of northern China

LIU Rentao
Subjects: Biology >> Ecology

Restoration of cropland (termed 'Farm') after abandonment including shrubs (termed 'Shrub'), trees (termed 'Tree') and natural grassland (termed 'Grass') has become a routine process aimed to improve land productivity and control desertification. During this restoration process, soil macro-faunal diversity, and trophic structure were investigated at four types of sites (Farm, Shrub, Tree, and Grass) during growing season in the semi-arid agro-pasture zone of northern China. Results indicated that the Staphylinidae family was found to dominate at the Grass, Shrub, and Tree sites, whiles larval Pyralidae individuals were found at the Grass site only. The density of the omnivores (i.e., Formicidae family) was significantly (P<0.05) greater at the Grass site than at the Tree and Farm sites. The total density and richness of predator and phytophages were found to be markedly (P<0.05) greater at the Grass site than at the Farm site. Meanwhile, we found the taxon richness of predators was significantly (P<0.05) higher at the Shrub site than at the Farm and Tree sites. Compared with the Farm and afforested Shrub/Tree sites, the Grass site had greater density, taxon richness, and Shannon index (P<0.05). In conclusion, natural restoration of abandoned croplands toward grassland was an effective strategy relative to artificial afforestation for improvement of soil biological diversity. Moreover, planting shrub is a preferable measure in abandoned croplands for land development in the semi-arid agro-pasture zone of northern China.

submitted time 2019-03-28 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits6297Downloads2451 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201903.00233 [pdf]

Exogenously applied glycinebetaine induced alteration in some key physio-biochemical attributes and plant anatomical features in water stressed oat (Avena sativa L.) plants

Anum SHEHZADI
Subjects: Biology >> Physiology

Although exogenous application of glycinebetaine (GB) is widely reported to regulate a myriad of physio-biochemical attributes in plants under stressful environments including drought stress, there is little information available in the literature on how and up to what extent GB can induce changes in anatomical features in water starved plants. Thus, the present research work was conducted to assess the GB-induced changes in growth, physio-biochemical, and anatomical characteristics in two cultivars (CK-1 and F-411) of oat (Avena sativa L.) under limited water supply. After exposure to water stress, a considerable reduction was observed in plant growth in terms of lengths and weights of shoot and roots, leaf mesophyll thickness, leaf midrib thickness, root cortex thickness, root diameter, stem diameter, stem phloem area, and stem vascular bundle area in both oat cultivars. However, water stress resulted in a significant increase in leaf total phenolics, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ascorbic acid (AsA), GB contents, activities of enzymes (CAT, SOD and POD), total soluble proteins, leaf epidermis (abaxial and adaxial) thickness, bulliform cell area, sclerenchyma thickness, root endodermis and epidermis thickness, root metaxylem area, stem metaxylem area and stem sclerenchyma thickness in both oat cultivars. Foliar-applied 100 mM GB suppressed H2O2 contents, while improved growth attributes, free proline and GB contents, activity of SOD enzyme, leaf abaxial epidermis thickness, leaf bulliform cell area, leaf midrib thickness, leaf sclerenchyma thickness, root cortex thickness, root endodermis, epidermis thickness, root stele diameter, stem diameter, stem epidermis thickness, stem metaxylem area, and stem phloem and vascular bundle area in both oat cultivars. For both oat cultivars, CK-1 was superior to F-411 in leaf abaxial epidermis thickness, leaf mesophyll, leaf sclerenchyma, root metaxylem area, stem diameter, stem epidermis, sclerenchyma thickness, stem metaxylem area, and stem vascular bundle area. Overall, both oat cultivars showed inconsistent behavior to water stress and foliar-applied GB in terms of different physio-biochemical attributes, however, CK-1 was superior to F-411 in a number of anatomical features of leaf, root, and stem.

submitted time 2019-03-28 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits2058Downloads297 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201903.00235 [pdf]

Impact of air drought on photosynthesis efficiency of the Siberian crabapple (Malus baccata L. Borkh.) in the forest-steppe zone of Transbaikalia, Russia

Alexandr RUDIKOVSKII
Subjects: Biology >> Botany

The adaption of photosynthesis, being a key metabolic process, plays an important role in plant resistance to air drought. In this study, the Siberian crabapple (Malus baccata L. Borkh.) in the forest-steppe zone of Transbaikalia region, Russia, was subjected to air drought stress and its photosynthesis characteristics were analyzed. The results show that air drought and sufficient soil moisture supply lead to the decrease in the total chlorophyll (Chl) content, while the ratio of Chls to carotenoids is constant in the Siberian crabapple tree. The function of photosystem II (PS-II) in the crabapple trees is characterized by a decrease in the fraction of absorbed light energy spent on the photochemical work and an increase in the proportion of non-photosynthetic thermal quenching. These changes indicate the photosynthetic down-regulation that acts as a universal photoprotective mechanism. During the midday hours, the combination of high air temperature and low air humidity leads to the decrease in the maximum photochemical quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and the efficiency of photosynthesis (PABS). The parameters of leaf gas exchange show the significant differences in these values between the control and experimental variants. During the morning hours, the Siberian crabapple, growing in the Irkutsk City, assimilates carbon dioxide more intensively. Due to the higher air humidity, the stomata are kept open and the necessary amount of carbon dioxide entries the sites of carboxylation. The low air humidity combined with wind in the experimental variants leads to the unreasonably high water loss in the crabapple leaves by more than 27% as compared to the control variant (Irkutsk City). However, water use efficiency in the morning hours increases during plant photosynthetic processes, i.e., 42% higher than that of control. This, apparently, is a reflection of the adaptation processes of the Siberian crabapple to the air drought and parching wind.

submitted time 2019-03-28 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits5035Downloads292 Comment 0

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