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1. chinaXiv:202104.00005 [pdf]

Taxonomic revision of the holotype of Proboselaphus watasei Matsumoto, 1915 (Bovidae, Artiodactyla) from Chuanyu area, China

NISHIOKA Yuichiro; KOHNO Naoki; KUDO Yuichiro
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

A taxonomic revision of Proboselaphus watasei Matsumoto, 1915 (Bovidae, Artiodactyla) from the Pleistocene of Chuanyu area, China demonstrates that this genus and species names are invalid. The holotype with a skull and mandibles was recently rediscovered in the fossil collection by Nobuo Naora, which is housed in the National Museum of Japanese History, Chiba Prefecture, Japan. Proboselaphus watasei was described as a closely-related species to living nilgai, or Boselaphus tragocamelus, in South Asia, based on general characteristics of pecorans, such as small bony horn-cores and hypsodont cheek teeth. However, the cranial and dental morphologies re-examined in the present study clearly show that the holotype has cervid-specific characteristics: e.g., the fronto-parietal surface curving dorsally, the basioccipital with a triangular outline, and molars with isolated anterior and posterior lobes. The molars of the holotype are comparable to those of Cervus unicolor, in having strong accessary structures (or spurs, cingulums/cingulids, and styles/stylids), and are as large as those of Cervus cf. C. unicolor from the Pleistocene deposits in southern China. This taxonomic change suggests that any crown-boselaphins had not dispersed into East Asia since the Pleistocene.

submitted time 2021-04-02 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits212Downloads97 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202104.00006 [pdf]

Climate change and evolution of early lagomorphs (Mammalia): a study perspective based on new materials of Ordolagus from Nei Mongol (northern China)

Chiara ANGELONE; ZHANG Zhao-Qun
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

The Early Oligocene is a critical time for global climate changes in the Cenozoic. This epoch witnessed severe mammalian faunal turnovers known as “Grande Coupure” in Europe and “Mongolian Remodelling” in Asia. However, insights about morphological changes in Oligocene mammal lineages have not been explored in detail. One of the least diversified groups of recent mammals, lagomorpha, is globally common in the fossil records, especially in Asia. During the Oligocene, many Eocene archaic lagomorph taxa died out and were replaced by more advanced forms. New findings from Nei Mongol and re-examination of the specimens from older collections enabled a revision of a common Asian lagomorph genus, Ordolagus, which possibly has a close affinity with the Middle–Late Eocene genus Gobiolagus. In Nei Mongol, we recognized the presence of Ordolagus during the basal Early Oligocene. Comparisons with coeval and slightly older lagomorph taxa from Asia and North America show that Ordolagus attained some salient tooth morphological characters (i.e., development of anteroconid on p3, full hypselodonty of cheek teeth, and lingual connection of trigonid and talonid on p4–m2), which are also the key features of modern leporids. The appearance of those morphologic features in Ordolagus is coeval to major global or regional climatic changes. Further investigations on Asian early lagomorphs compared with the study of other small mammals and local climatic factors will be essential to refine the role of lagomorphs as palaeoclimatic proxies.

submitted time 2021-04-02 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits191Downloads93 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202005.00089 [pdf]

Uncertainty assessment of potential evapotranspiration in arid areas, as estimated by the Penman-Monteith method

HUA Ding; HAO Xingming; ZHANG Ying; QIN Jingxiu
Subjects: Biology >> Botany >> Applied botany

The Penman-Monteith (PM) method is the most widely used technique to estimate potential worldwide evapotranspiration. However, current research shows that there may be significant errors in the application of this method in arid areas, although questions remain as to the degree of this estimation error and how different surface conditions may affect the estimation error. To address these issues, we evaluated the uncertainty of the PM method under different underlying conditions in an arid area of Northwest China by analyzing data from 84 meteorological stations and various Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products, including land surface temperature and surface albedo. First, we found that when the PM method used air temperature to calculate the slope of the saturation vapor pressure curve, it significantly overestimated the potential evapotranspiration; the mean annual and July–August overestimation was 83.9 and 36.7 mm, respectively. Second, the PM method usually set the surface albedo to a fixed value, which led to the potential evapotranspiration being underestimated; the mean annual underestimation was 27.5 mm, while the overestimation for July to August was 5.3 mm. Third, the PM method significantly overestimated the potential evapotranspiration in the arid area. This difference in estimation was closely related to the underlying surface conditions. For the entire arid zone, the PM method overestimated the potential evapotranspiration by 33.7 mm per year, with an overestimation of 29.0 mm from July to August. The most significant overestimation was evident in the mountainous and plain non-vegetation areas, in which the annual mean overestimation reached 5% and 10%, respectively; during July, there was an estimation of 10% and 20%, respectively. Although the annual evapotranspiration of the plains with better vegetation coverage was slightly underestimated, overestimation still occurred in July and August, with a mean overestimation of approximately 5%. In order to estimate potential evapotranspiration in the arid zone, it is important that we identify a reasonable parameter with which to calibrate the PM formula, such as the slope of the saturation vapor pressure curve, and the surface albedo. We recommend that some parameters must be corrected when using PM in order to estimate potential evapotranspiration in arid regions.

submitted time 2020-05-31 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits12532Downloads1059 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202004.00001 [pdf]

Reappraisal of Serridentinus gobiensis Osborn & Granger?and Miomastodon tongxinensis Chen:the validity of Miomastodon

WANG Shi-Qi; ZHANG Xiao-Xiao; LI Chun-Xiao?
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

The elephantimorph proboscideans, Serridentinus gobiensis Osborn & Granger, 1932, and Miomastodon tongxinensis Chen, 1978, from the Middle Miocene of northern China, were revised as Zygolophodon gobiensis (Osborn & Granger, 1932). However, their phylogenetic positions are still being debated because of their intermediate morphology between the typical bunodont (Gomphotheriidae) and zygodont (Mammutidae) elephantimorphs. In the present paper, we compare their dental and mandibular morphology with that of the Eurasian Z. turicensis, Gomphotherium subtapiroideum, and G. tassyi, as well as the North American Mio. merriami and G. productum. It appears that S. gobiensis and Mio. tongxinensis share with Mio. merriami the slightly more bunodont molar morphology than that of Z. turicensis, e.g., the thicker enamel, thicker pretrite crescentoids, higher interlophid enamel pillars in buccal view, and the narrower contour majorly caused by the narrower posttrite half loph(id)s. S. gobiensis and Mio. merriami also possess an “erected oval cross-sectioned mandibular tusk”, in which the cross-section is mediolaterally compressed (dorsoventral diameter being larger than the mediolateral one). Whereas, in Z. turicensis and G. productum, the mandibular tusk is “laid oval cross-sectioned”, in which the cross-section is dorsoventrally compressed (dorsoventral diameter is smaller than the mediolateral one). Therefore, it is reasonable to revive the genus Miomastodon Osborn, 1922, which contains the species that were previously attributed to Zygolophodon, but they have relatively bunodont molar morphology (i.e., the robust type of the Z. turicensis group). The mandibular tusk with erected?oval cross-section seems to be a synapomorphy of Miomastodon species. Furthermore, the molar morphology of G. subtapiroideum and G. tassyi also exhibits intermediate status between the typical bunodonts and zygodonts. However, the mandibular symphysis of G. subtapiroideum and G. tassyi is stronger than that of Miomastodon, and the mandibular tusk is pyriform cross-sectioned. The validity of Miomastodon and G. subtapiroideum/tassyi obscures the boundary between the Gomphotheriidae and Mammutidae, and suggests that the evolutions of the Gomphotheriidae and?Mammutidae are deeply involved in with each other, rather than straightforwardly detached. This phenomenon has been revealed by a collagen sequence analysis among Notiomastodon, Mammut, and extant elephants, which should be further studied.

submitted time 2020-03-31 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits6577Downloads1119 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:201908.00119 [pdf]

New gobiconodontid (Eutriconodonta, Mammalia) from?the Lower Cretaceous Shahai and Fuxin formations,?Liaoning, China

KUSUHASHI Nao; WANG Yuan-Qing; ?LI Chuan-Kui; JIN Xun
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

Eutriconodontans are one of the key members of mammals to our understanding of the evolution and transition of mammalian fauna in Asia during the Cretaceous. Two gobiconodontid?and two triconodontid species have previously been reported from the upper Lower Cretaceous?Shahai and Fuxin formations. Here we describe two additional eutriconodontans from the?formations, Fuxinoconodon changi gen. et sp. nov. and ?Gobiconodontidae gen. et sp. indet.?This new species is attributed to the Gobiconodontidae, characterized by having an enlarged?first lower incisor, reduction in the number of incisors and premolariforms, proportionally large?cusps b and c being well distant from cusp a on the molariforms, presence of a labial cingulid,?and a unique mixed combination of molariform characters seen on either the first or the second,?but not both, generations of molariforms in Gobiconodon. Together with the four known species,?eutriconodontans remained diverse to some extent in the late Early Cretaceous in Asia, although?their family-level and generic level diversity appears to have been already reduced at that time.

submitted time 2019-08-26 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits8481Downloads980 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:201908.00120 [pdf]

New gobiconodontid (Eutriconodonta, Mammalia) from?the Lower Cretaceous Shahai and Fuxin formations,?Liaoning, China

KUSUHASHI Nao; WANG Yuan-Qing; ?LI Chuan-Kui; JIN Xun
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

Eutriconodontans are one of the key members of mammals to our understanding of the evolution and transition of mammalian fauna in Asia during the Cretaceous. Two gobiconodontid?and two triconodontid species have previously been reported from the upper Lower Cretaceous?Shahai and Fuxin formations. Here we describe two additional eutriconodontans from the?formations, Fuxinoconodon changi gen. et sp. nov. and ?Gobiconodontidae gen. et sp. indet.?This new species is attributed to the Gobiconodontidae, characterized by having an enlarged?first lower incisor, reduction in the number of incisors and premolariforms, proportionally large?cusps b and c being well distant from cusp a on the molariforms, presence of a labial cingulid,?and a unique mixed combination of molariform characters seen on either the first or the second,?but not both, generations of molariforms in Gobiconodon. Together with the four known species,?eutriconodontans remained diverse to some extent in the late Early Cretaceous in Asia, although?their family-level and generic level diversity appears to have been already reduced at that time.

submitted time 2019-08-26 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits8626Downloads940 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:201906.00053 [pdf]

New material of thelodonts from Lochkovian(Lower Devonian) of Qujing, Yunnan, China

CUI Xin-Dong(1,2,3); LI Qiang(4); QIAO Tuo(1,2); ZHU Min(1,2,3)
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

We reconstructed a wealth of three-dimensional virtual models of vertebrate microremains from the Xitun Formation and lower part of the Xishancun Formation (Lochkovian,Lower Devonian) of Qujing, Yunnan by means of high-resolution computed tomography. One genus (Parathelodus) and seven species (P. trilobatus, P. asiaticus, P. cornuformis, P. scitulus, P. xitunensis sp. nov., P. wangi sp. nov. and P. liaokuoensis sp. nov.) of thelodonts are described. The new discovery extends the stratigraphic distribution of Parathelodus from the Xitun Formation and the upper part of the Xishancun Formation to the lower part of the Xishancun Formation, the horizon close to the Silurian-Devonian boundary. The three new species, P. xitunensis, P. wangi and P. liaokuoensis, enhance our knowledge of the thelodont diversity from the Early Devonian of China.

submitted time 2019-06-17 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits7819Downloads781 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:201906.00028 [pdf]

Cladistic approach on chronological relationship of the?Pleistocene mammalian faunas from China

DONG Wei; LIU Wen-Hui; BAI Wei-Peng
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

There are many localities yielding the Pleistocene mammalian faunas in China. It?offers excellent material for the study of mammalian evolution, biochronology,paleoecology,paleoenvironment, paleozoogeography, etc. Faunal assemblage characters and taxonomic?extinction rates were widely used for determining the faunal ages in biochronology. Faunal binary?similarity coefficients sequenced according to Brainerd-Robinson’s rule and antiquity coefficients?were further developed methods in biochronology for dating the faunal ages. The faunal binary?similarity coefficients are based on the presence or absence of a taxon in a fauna. It is similar to?the presence or absence of a character of a species in cladistic analyses for phylogeny, and all?faunas have a special ancestor-descendant relationship. The present work is an attempt to find the?relationship of the faunas with cladistic methods by selecting three groups of faunas sequenced?by faunal binary similarity coefficients according to Brainerd-Robinson’s rule and antiquity?coefficients, to compare the results with different methods, and then to estimate the ages of the?faunas not yet dated by physical or chemical methods. The estimations are as follow: Gulongshan?in Dalian, Liaoning Province: 16–20 ka; Shanchengzi at Benxi, Liaoning Province: 20–30 ka;?Hualongdong at Dongzhi Man site, Anhui Province: 150–400 ka; Xinghuashan at Nanzhao Man?site, Henan Province: 150–400 ka; Donghe at Luonan Man site, Shaanxi Province: 500–700 ka; Bailongdong at Yunxi Man site, Hubei Province: 500–850 ka; Meipu at Yunxian, Hubei?Province: 500–850 ka; Mohui at Tiandong Man site, Guangxi Autonomous Region: 1.2–1.8 Ma;?Juyuandong at Liucheng, Guangxi Autonomous Region: 1.2–1.5 Ma; Chutoulang at Chifeng, Nei?Mongol Autonomous Region: 1.6–1.9 Ma; Renzidong at Fanchang, Anhui Province: 1.9–2.4 Ma.

submitted time 2019-06-11 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits8380Downloads1085 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:201906.00097 [pdf]

Cladistic approach on chronological relationship of the?Pleistocene mammalian faunas from China

DONG Wei; LIU Wen-Hui; BAI Wei-Peng
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

There are many localities yielding the Pleistocene mammalian faunas in China. It?offers excellent material for the study of mammalian evolution, biochronology,paleoecology,paleoenvironment, paleozoogeography, etc. Faunal assemblage characters and taxonomic?extinction rates were widely used for determining the faunal ages in biochronology. Faunal binary?similarity coefficients sequenced according to Brainerd-Robinson’s rule and antiquity coefficients?were further developed methods in biochronology for dating the faunal ages. The faunal binary?similarity coefficients are based on the presence or absence of a taxon in a fauna. It is similar to?the presence or absence of a character of a species in cladistic analyses for phylogeny, and all?faunas have a special ancestor-descendant relationship. The present work is an attempt to find the?relationship of the faunas with cladistic methods by selecting three groups of faunas sequenced?by faunal binary similarity coefficients according to Brainerd-Robinson’s rule and antiquity?coefficients, to compare the results with different methods, and then to estimate the ages of the?faunas not yet dated by physical or chemical methods. The estimations are as follow: Gulongshan?in Dalian, Liaoning Province: 16–20 ka; Shanchengzi at Benxi, Liaoning Province: 20–30 ka;?Hualongdong at Dongzhi Man site, Anhui Province: 150–400 ka; Xinghuashan at Nanzhao Man?site, Henan Province: 150–400 ka; Donghe at Luonan Man site, Shaanxi Province: 500–700 ka; Bailongdong at Yunxi Man site, Hubei Province: 500–850 ka; Meipu at Yunxian, Hubei?Province: 500–850 ka; Mohui at Tiandong Man site, Guangxi Autonomous Region: 1.2–1.8 Ma;?Juyuandong at Liucheng, Guangxi Autonomous Region: 1.2–1.5 Ma; Chutoulang at Chifeng, Nei?Mongol Autonomous Region: 1.6–1.9 Ma; Renzidong at Fanchang, Anhui Province: 1.9–2.4 Ma.

submitted time 2019-06-11 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits8514Downloads1037 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:201711.01892 [pdf]

A revision of Anhuichelys Yeh, 1979, the earliest known stem Testudinidae (Testudines: Cryptodira) from the Paleocene of China

TONG Hai-Yan; LI Lu; LI Ding-Sheng; CHEN Li-Min; LI Tao; YU Shu-Hua; YU Guo-Sheng; CHENG Xiao-Qing; DI Ye-Li; Julien CLAUDE
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

Our systematic revision of Anhuichelys Yeh, 1979, based on abundant new material from the Paleocene of Qianshan Basin, Anhui Province, China provides evidences for its assignment to the stem Testudinidae. Anhuichelys contains three species in the Paleocene of Qianshan Basin: A. siaoshihensis Yeh, 1979 from the Early Paleocene of Wanghudun Formation, A. tsienshanensis Yeh, 1979 from both Wanghudun and Doumu formations and A. doumuensis sp. nov. from the Middle Paleocene Doumu Formation. A. xinzhouensis Chen, 1983 from the Paleocene of Xinzhou, Hubei Province is synonymized with A. tsienshanensis. Associated with a terrestrial vertebrate fauna, Anhuichelys is likely a land turtle and also the first testudinoid to develop the hinge on the shell.

submitted time 2017-11-07 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits1676Downloads620 Comment 0

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