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1. chinaXiv:202009.00050 [pdf]

Late Miocene micromammalian assemblage of Tuchengzi and its biochronological position in Neogene faunal sequence in central Nei Mongol, China

ZHANG Li-Min; DONG Wei; Ni Xi-Jun; LI Qiang
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

Neogene strata rich in fossil mammals are well exposed in central Nei Mongol, China. Over a dozen mammalian faunas in chronological succession from Early Miocene to Early Pliocene were discerned in this region, and they built a fundamental part of the Neogene land mammal biochronological system in northern China. Tuchengzi was first recognized for producing abundant mammalian fossils during the Sino-Soviet Paleontological Expedition (SSPE) initiated in 1959. However, all unearthed fossils from the SSPE were either large- or middle-sized mammals, and small mammal fossils in the Tuchengzi Fauna were deficient for a long time. The composition and biochronological position of the Tuchengzi Fauna in the Neogene mammalian biochronological system in northern China was not particularly clear. The new fossils here reported are represented by 6 taxa of small mammals. Based on the co-occurrence of Lophocricetus grabaui, Sinocricetus zdanskyi, Prosiphneus licenti, Hansdebruijnia pusilla, and Moschus grandaevus, the age of the Tuchengzi Fauna is constrained to late Late Miocene or Baodean Chinese Land Mammal Age, slighter younger than the Baogeda Ula Fauna and older than the Ertemte Fauna. Judging from the fossil composition, the Tuchengzi Fauna possibly inhabited a forest-steppe mixed habitat during the late Late Miocene.

submitted time 2020-09-15 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits123Downloads52 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202002.00033 [pdf]

Decoding evolution and transmissions of novel pneumonia coronavirus using the whole genomic data

Yu, Wen-Bin; Tang, Guang-Da; Zhang, Li; Corlett, Richard T.
Subjects: Biology >> Virology
Subjects: Biology >> Genetics

Background. The outbreak of COVID-19 started in mid-December 2019 in Wuhan, Central China. Up to February 18, 2020, SARS-CoV-2 has infected more than 70,000 people in China, and another 25 countries across five continents. In this study, we used 93 complete genomes of SARS-CoV-2 from the GISAID EpiFluTM database to decode the evolution and human-to-human transmissions of SARS-CoV-2 in the recent two months. Methods. Alignment of coding-regions was conducted haplotype analyses using DnaSP. Substitution sites were analyzed in codon. Evolutionary analysis of haplotypes used NETWORK. Population size changes were estimated using both DnaSP and Arlequin. Expansion date of population size was calculated based on the expansion parameter tau (τ) using the formula t=τ/2u. Findings. Eight coding-regions have 120 substitution sites, including 79 non-synonymous and 40 synonymous substitutions. Forty-two non-synonymous substitutions changed the biochemical property of amino acids. No evident combination was found. Fifty-eight haplotypes were classified as five groups, and 31 haplotypes were found in samples from both China and other countries, respectively. The rooted network suggested H13 and H35 to be ancestral haplotypes, and H1 (and its descendent haplotypes including all samples from the Hua Nan market) was derived H3 haplotype. Population size of SARS-CoV-2 were estimated to have a recent expansion on 6 January 2020, and an early expansion on 8 December 2019. Interpretation. Genomic variations of SARS-CoV-2 are still low in comparisons with published genomes of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Phyloepidemiologic analyses indicated the SARS-CoV-2 source at the Hua Nan market should be imported from other places. The crowded market boosted SARS-CoV-2 rapid circulations in the market and spread it to the whole city in early December 2019. Furthermore, phyloepidemiologic approaches have recovered specific direction of human-to-human transmissions, and the import sources of international infectious cases.

submitted time 2020-02-21 Hits289389Downloads73298 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201711.01910 [pdf]

New material of the Early Pleistocene mammalian fauna from Chutoulang, Chifeng, eastern Nei Mongol, China and binary faunal similarity analyses

DONG Wei; ZHANG Li-Min; LIU Wen-Hui
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

New specimens from a new locality at Chutoulang in eastern Nei Mongol were identified as Canis chihliensis, Coelodonta nihowanensis, Hipparion (Proboscidipparion) sinense, Equus sanmeniensis, Sus lydekkeri, Muntiacus cf. M. lacustris, Axis shansius, Eucladoceros boulei, Spirocerus cf. S. wongi and Bison palaeosinensis. They enriched the mammalian fauna of Chutoulang to 30 taxa together with the material from Dongliang, Dongcun Beigou and Dongcun Nangou localities. The mammalian fossils from these four localities are all from the same horizon and can be regarded as the same fauna, i.e. Chutoulang fauna. The composition of Chutoulang fauna is the closest to that of Nihewan (s.s.) by binary faunal similarity coefficients. The age of Chutoulang fauna is between those of Nihewan (s.s.) and Juyuandong at Liucheng according to Brainerd-Robinson’s sequence, extinction rates and antiquity coefficients. The numerical age of Chutoulang fauna is estimated between 1.4–1.6 Ma based on those of compared faunas. Carnivora are the most numerous in Chutoulang fauna with 11 taxa, but mostly the small sized ones. Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla make about half of the fauna. They are mostly large sized forms. The presence of numerous browsers or forest dwellers implies the existence of forest or woodland in Chutoulang area during that period. The presence of grazers and openland dwellers indicates the existence of larger area of grassland or steppes than that of woodland or forests. Most members of Chutoulang fauna are temperate habitat dwellers with a few cold-prone forms such as Ochotona and Coelodonta. The climate in Chutoulang area in the Early Pleistocene was thus similar to that of today. Chutoulang fauna is the most northeastern Early Pleistocene fauna in China and it can be recommended as a type site of the Early Pleistocene mammalian fauna in northeastern China.

submitted time 2017-11-07 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits1466Downloads679 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:201703.01016 [pdf]

cDNA microarray analysis of differential gene expression and regulation in clinically drug-resistant isolates of Candida albicans from bone marrow transplanted patients

Xu, Zheng; Zhang, Li-Xin; Zhang, Jun-Dong; Cao, Yong-Bing; Yu, an-Yuan Yu; Wang, De-Jun; Ying, Kang; Chen, Wan-Sheng; Jiang, Yuan-Ying
Subjects: Biology >> Biomedical Laboratory Science

Fungi have emerged as the fourth most common pathogens isolated in nosocomial bloodstream infections, and Candida albicans is the most common human fungal pathogen. Only a few antibiotics are effective in the treatment of fungal infections. In addition, the repetition and lengthy duration of fluconazole therapy has led to an increased incidence of azole resistance and treatment failure associated with C. albicans. To investigate the mechanism of drug resistance and explore new targets to treat clinically resistant fungal pathogens, we examined the large-scale gene expression profile of two sets of matched fluconazole-susceptible and -resistant bloodstream C. albicans isolates from bone marrow transplanted (BMT) patients for the first time by microarray analysis. More than 198 differentially expressed genes were identified and they were confirmed and validated by RT-PCR independently. Not surprisingly, the resistant phenotype is associated with increased expression of CDR mRNA, as well as some common genes involved in drug resistance such as CaIFU5, CaRTA2 and CaIFD6. Meanwhile, some special functional groups of genes, including ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter genes (IPF7530, CaYOR1, CaPXA1), oxidative stress response genes (CaALD5, CaGRP1, CaSOD2, IPF10565), copper transport and iron mobilization-related genes (CaCRD1/2, CaCTR1/2, CaCCC2, CaFET3) were found to be differentially expressed in the resistant isolates. Furthermore, among these differentially expressed genes, some co-regulated with CaCDR1, CaCDR2 and CaIFU5, such as CaPDR16 and CaIFD6, have a DRE-like element and may interact with TAC1 in the promoter region. These findings may shed light on mechanisms of azole resistance in C. albicans and clinical antifungal therapy.

submitted time 2017-03-30 Hits2172Downloads823 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:201605.01727 [pdf]

Cilostazol inhibits plasmacytoid dendritic cell activation and antigen presentation

Sun, Fei; Yin, Zhao; Shi, Quan-Xing; Zhao, Bei; Wang, Shou-Li; Yu, Hai-Sheng; Zhang, Li-Guo
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics

Background Cilostazol, an anti-platelet drug for treating coronary heart disease, has been reported to modulate immune cell functions. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) have been found to participate in the progression of atherosclerosis mainly through interferon a (IFN-alpha) production. Whether cilostazol influences pDCs activation is still not clear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of cilostazol on cell activation and antigen presentation of pDCs in vitro in this study. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated by Ficoll centrifugation and pDCs sorted by flow cytometry were used in this study. After pretreated with cilostazol for 2 h, cells were stimulated with CpG-A, R848 or virus for 6 h or 20 h, or stimulated with CpG-B for 48 h and then co-cultured with naive T cell for five days. Cytokines in supernatant and intracellular cytokines were analyzed by ELISA or flow cytometry respectively. Results Our data indicated that cilostazol could inhibit IFN-alpha and tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-alpha) production from pDCs in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the ability of priming naive T cells of pDCs was also impaired by cilostazol. The inhibitory effect was not due to cell killing since the viability of pDCs did not change upon cilostazol treatment. Conclusion Cilostazol inhibits pDCs cell activation and antigen presentation in vitro, which may explain how cilostazol protects against atherosclerosis.

submitted time 2016-05-15 Hits1329Downloads601 Comment 0

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