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1. chinaXiv:202005.00090 [pdf]

Spatial and temporal change patterns of net primary productivity and its response to climate change in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau of China from 2000 to 2015

GUO Bing; ZANG Wenqian6, YANG Fei; HAN Baomin; CHEN Shuting; LIU Yue; YANG Xiao; HE Tianli; CHEN Xi; LIU Chunting; GONG Rui
Subjects: Biology >> Botany >> Applied botany

The vegetation ecosystem of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau in China, considered to be the ′′natural laboratory′′ of climate change in the world, has undergone profound changes under the stress of global change. Herein, we analyzed and discussed the spatial-temporal change patterns and the driving mechanisms of net primary productivity (NPP) in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau from 2000 to 2015 based on the gravity center and correlation coefficient models. Subsequently, we quantitatively distinguished the relative effects of climate change (such as precipitation, temperature and evapotranspiration) and human activities (such as grazing and ecological construction) on the NPP changes using scenario analysis and Miami model based on the MOD17A3 and meteorological data. The average annual NPP in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau showed a decreasing trend from the southeast to the northwest during 2000–2015. With respect to the inter-annual changes, the average annual NPP exhibited a fluctuating upward trend from 2000 to 2015, with a steep increase observed in 2005 and a high fluctuation observed from 2005 to 2015. In the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, the regions with the increase in NPP (change rate higher than 10%) were mainly concentrated in the Three-River Source Region, the northern Hengduan Mountains, the middle and lower reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River, and the eastern parts of the North Tibet Plateau, whereas the regions with the decrease in NPP (change rate lower than –10%) were mainly concentrated in the upper reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River and the Ali Plateau. The gravity center of NPP in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau has moved southwestward during 2000–2015, indicating that the increment and growth rate of NPP in the southwestern part is greater than those of NPP in the northeastern part.Further, a significant correlation was observed between NPP and climate factors in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. The regions exhibiting a significant correlation between NPP and precipitation were mainly located in the central and eastern Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, and the regions exhibiting a significant correlation between NPP and temperature were mainly located in the southern and eastern Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. Furthermore, the relative effects of climate change and human activities on the NPP changes in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau exhibited significant spatial differences in three types of zones, i.e., the climate change-dominant zone, the human activity-dominant zone, and the climate change and human activity interaction zone. These research results can provide theoretical and methodological supports to reveal the driving mechanisms of the regional ecosystems to the global change in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau.

submitted time 2020-05-31 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits10521Downloads563 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201605.01368 [pdf]

Substrate-bound structure of the E. coli multidrug resistance transporter MdfA

Heng, Jie; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Yue; Fan, Junping; Wang, Xianping; Zhao, Yongfang; Zhang, Xuejun C.; Heng, Jie; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Ming
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics >> Cell Biology

Multidrug resistance is a serious threat to public health. Proton motive force-driven antiporters from the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) constitute a major group of multidrug-resistance transporters. Currently, no reports on crystal structures of MFS antiporters in complex with their substrates exist. The E. coli MdfA transporter is a well-studied model system for biochemical analyses of multidrug-resistance MFS antiporters. Here, we report three crystal structures of MdfA-ligand complexes at resolutions up to 2.0 angstrom, all in the inward-facing conformation. The substrate-binding site sits proximal to the conserved acidic residue, D34. Our mutagenesis studies support the structural observations of the substrate-binding mode and the notion that D34 responds to substrate binding by adjusting its protonation status. Taken together, our data unveil the substrate-binding mode of MFS antiporters and suggest a mechanism of transport via this group of transporters.

submitted time 2016-05-12 Hits637Downloads355 Comment 0

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