摘要: 海南热带雨林国家公园森林资源富集，探究该地区景观格局时空演变特征，对维护海 南岛生态安全屏障具有重要意义。该文依托 2015 和 2020 年海南热带雨林国家公园地表覆盖 数据，建立景观分布格局体系，采用景观格局指数、景观动态度和转移矩阵的方法，分析海 南热带雨林国家公园 10 类土地覆被类型的景观格局变化特征，探究其变化的影响因素。结 果表明：（1）2015-2020 年，海南热带雨林国家公园整体景观破碎度呈现降低趋势，空间 集聚性增加，综合动态度较小，景观类型整体较稳定。（2）雨林优势种常绿阔叶林面积不 断增加，破碎度减小，呈正向增长态势；针叶林与灌木林面积减少；部分水体转化为湿地， 面积减小；其余景观类型面积占比较小，按自然演替方向发展变化。（3）景观格局演变主 要以雨林自然演替为主，其次受政策、气候等因素综合影响。综上所述，自开展海南热带雨 林国家公园体制试点以来，其景观格局趋于稳定。政策引导发挥着重要的正向作用，有针对 性的开展热带雨林景观保护及修复工作，有助于海南热带雨林国家公园可持续发展。
Abstract: Hainan Tropical Rainforest National Park is located in the middle mountainous region of Hainan Province, and it has a diverse landscape with 95.56% forest coverage. Studying the evolutionary aspects of the landscape pattern in time and space in Hainan Tropical Rainforest National Park is extremely important for preserving and enhancing Hainan Province's ecological security barrier. The landscape pattern index, landscape single-motion attitude, and transfer matrix were used to examine the geographical and temporal evolution features of the landscape pattern of ten types of land cover types in Hainan Tropical Rainforest National Park between 2015 and 2020. The paper used ground cover data from the Hainan Tropical Rainforest National Park between 2015 and 2020 to develop a landscape pattern distribution system based on actual ecological situations. Other elements that affected the evolution of the landscape pattern in Hainan Tropical Rainforest National Park included policies, climate, and other natural and human factors. The results were as follows: (1) The overall landscape fragmentation of Hainan Tropical Rainforest National Park reduced between 2015 and 2020, increasing spatial agglomeration of the landscape, decreasing integrated dynamic attitude, and generally steady development of landscape types. (2) The area of evergreen broad-leaved forest in the tropical rainforest has increased in five years, with an increase of 531.38 km2, a decrease in fragmentation, and a positive growth trend, and the landscape tends to be concentrated in patches; on the other hand, the area of needle-leaved forest and shrubwood has been significantly reduced, with losses of 189.53 km2 and 294.74 km2 respectively; there was also a partial transformation of water. The area of the water landscape has been somewhat reduced, and the patches tend to be concentrated and spread; the remainder of the landscape types account for a relatively modest amount, and develop and change in the direction of natural succession. (3) The landscape pattern evolution of Hainan Tropical Rainforest National Park was primarily based on natural succession of the rainforest, followed by a comprehensive impact of policy, climate, and other factors, which reduced human factors on the tropical rainforest landscape interference and was conducive to improving the rainforest ecosystem's self-healing capacity. To summarize, the landscape pattern of Hainan Tropical Rainforest National Park has been stable since the commencement of the pilot project, and policy direction has played an essential constructive role. The targeted conservation and restoration of the tropical rain forest environment will help to the Hainan Tropical Rainforest National Park's long-term growth.
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