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食用观音座莲(Angiopteris esculenta)是独龙族(中国云南人口最少的少数民族) 重要的野生代粮植物,其地下部分可用于加工蕨粉以制作食物。为深入调查、记录独龙族利 用食用观音座莲的传统知识,解读独龙族食用该蕨类植物的科学内涵,该文采用民族植物学 的方法对食用观音座莲相关的传统知识进行调查、记录,运用食品科学的方法对蕨粉的基本 成分、形态、理化性质及糊化特性进行了深入探究。结果表明:(1)食用观音座莲在独龙 族的传统生计中有多种用途,定量分析表明其食用用途的相对引用频率(RFC)远大于其他 用途,说明食用是独龙族利用该植物最主要的方式。(2)独龙族使用传统方法采集食用观 音座莲膨大叶柄基部和根茎加工并食用蕨粉具有深厚的科学内涵,表现在:蕨粉中富含淀粉, 其总淀粉含量为 86.2%,含有多种人体必需的矿物元素。(3)蕨粉相关理化性质优越,其 中冻融稳定性和凝沉稳定性较强,可用于冷冻食品和淀粉产品的生产、加工;回生值和衰减 值远低于常见淀粉,说明其具有良好的热糊稳定性和冷糊稳定性,且不易回生。该研究为食 用观音座莲后续的加工利用提供了理论依据。总体来说,食用观音座莲蕨粉具有较大的开发 利用潜能,通过人工栽培提高产量,有利于提高当地居民收入、促进偏远地区乡村振兴。
[英文摘要]Angiopteris esculenta is one of the most important wild substitutes for staple food in Dulong’s communities (the least populated ethnic group in Yunnan Province, China) for centuries. For a long time, the Dulong people collect the underground parts of A. esculenta to extract flour and make into food. In order to study and record the traditional knowledge of Angiopteris esculenta, and reveal the scientific basis of this plant consumed by Dulong people, ethnobotanical methods were employed to investigate and document the traditional knowledge about A. esculenta. Approaches of food science were used to reveal the basic components, appearance, physical and chemical properties, and gelatinization characteristics of A. esculenta flour in the present paper. The results were as follows: (1) A. esculenta is a multipurposed plant in the traditional livelihood of Dulong people. Local people employed this plant for edible purpose, medicinal purpose, ornamental purpose and woody purpose. Quantitative analysis showed that the relative frequency of citation (RFC) of the edibleness was much higher than that of other uses, which shows its main way as staple food. (2) The traditional uses of fern flour extracted from the underground part of A. esculenta imply rationalities. There is high starch content in the flour, and the total starch content is 86.2%. A. esculenta flour contains various mineral elements necessary for human body. (3) The flour has good physical and chemical properties, specifically, the retrogradation and freeze-thaw stability are strong, which can be used in the production and process of frozen food and starch products. The regeneration value and attenuation value of starch were much lower than that of common starch, which indicated that it had good stability of hot paste and cold paste, and not easy to regenerate, thus imply the good processability in food industry. The research results of the physical and chemical properties provide a theoretical basis for the subsequent processing and utilization of A. esculenta. In conclusion, A. esculenta flour has a good potential for utilization and further development. It is expected to play a positive role for increasing local residents’ income and for rural revitalization in remote areas, through the approaches of artificial cultivation.
Download Comment Cooperative journals:《广西植物》 Hits:3567 Downloads:265
Recommended references: 路晓平,程 卓,龙春林.(2021).独龙族传统代粮植物食用观音座莲的研究.广西植物.[ChinaXiv:202112.00138] (Click&Copy)
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[V1] 2021-12-19 21:30:36 chinaXiv:202112.00138V1 Download
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